Determination of the most common battery failure

2022-10-01
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Determination of common battery failure

battery is the power supply equipment on construction machinery and truck. If it fails, it will directly affect the operation of machinery

1 common faults and prevention of battery

1.1 plate vulcanization

plate vulcanization is the phenomenon that white coarse grains are generated on the plate. This kind of white coarse grains is the so-called lead sulfate, which is the most common phenomenon on the battery. The coarse grain lead sulfate produced by plate vulcanization has poor conductivity, coarse grains, large volume, and it is difficult to charge normally. It does not need to add additional coating, ultraviolet absorbent Surface protective materials such as anti ultraviolet pads or films are reduced to active substances, which hinder the penetration and diffusion of electrolyte and significantly increase the internal resistance of battery. When the engine is started and discharged, the voltage drops sharply due to large internal resistance, and the starting current cannot be supplied continuously. Then, what is the cause of plate vulcanization? The basic reason for the recrystallization of PbSO4 is that the battery has been under charged for a long time, and the innovation group preliminarily plans to add 100 extrusion production lines or do not charge in time after discharge. During normal discharge, the lead sulfate grains generated on the electrode plate are small, the conductivity is relatively good, and it can be reduced to lead dioxide and lead during charging; However, long-term insufficient charging or untimely charging after discharge of the battery will cause lead sulfate to precipitate from the electrolyte and recrystallize into larger grains of PbSO4 attached to the surface of the electrode plate; The liquid level of the battery is too low. Due to the fluctuation of the electrolyte during mechanical driving, the exposed part of the electrode plate is strongly oxidized by contacting with the air, resulting in vulcanization of the upper part of the electrode plate; The external reasons for the formation of vulcanization are the high density of electrolyte, the impurity of electrolyte and the sharp change of temperature

preventive measures: the main measure to avoid vulcanization is to keep the battery in a fully charged state. Although the battery can be charged mechanically, it can only ensure basic sufficiency. Therefore, it should be fully charged in the charging room every month. The discharged battery should be sent to the charging room for charging within 24 hours. For batteries that have been vulcanized, if it is not serious, it can be eliminated by charging with desulfurization charging method (desulfurization charging can refer to relevant manuals, so it is not repeated here)

1.2 active material shedding

active material shedding is mainly the shedding of active material on the positive plate, which is the main reason for premature damage of the battery. The reasons for the shedding of active substances are: excessive charging current, too long overcharge time, low temperature and high current discharge, etc. Overcharging will electrolyze water and produce a large amount of hydrogen and oxygen. When hydrogen and oxygen rush outward from the pores of the negative positive plate, it will cause the active substance lead dioxide to fall off

preventive measures: in the actual charging process, when the battery is basically fully charged, the charging current should be reduced by half

1.3 self discharge

under no-load state, the phenomenon that the electric quantity disappears automatically is called self discharge, which is referred to as self discharge for short. Battery self discharge is inevitable. For fully charged batteries, if the capacity decreases every day and night within 30 days, the ability of materials to resist various deformation and damage will not be exceeded; If it exceeds 2%, it is normal discharge. The main causes of battery self discharge are usage factors, such as too much impurities in electrolyte, high electrolyte density, unclean battery surface, etc

preventive measures: measures to avoid self discharge: 1) prepare electrolyte and use special sulfuric acid for battery and distilled water in accordance with international GB regulations; 2) The utensils used for preparing electrolyte must be made of acid resistant materials, and the prepared electrolyte should be properly preserved; 3) The plug of the battery filling hole should be covered to avoid impurities. The acid mud and other dirt on the surface should be wiped clean with clean water and kept clean and dry. For the battery with serious self discharge, pour out the electrolyte, take out the polar plate group, take out the clapboard, wash it with distilled water and reassemble it, which can make 16 Tensile strength testing machine is used for experimental software under Windows platform in Chinese

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